Address io1u88pcraz9mrf8wk2dag8d0xuf5qc8hsuxt9s9a

Contract Overview

Balance:
0 IOTX

IOTX Value:
$ 0

Token:
Txn Hash
Block
From
To
Value [Txn Fee]
2ac000242e446e0fe13f2a5fbb6d73d6188cf680eba999455fc8de7a1d0a9e1a 30314110 2024-06-02 04:09:55 +0000 UTC 16 days ago io1e89p28y0mtmzsf0jsak7tp5a280zcty0l58dca  IN    Contract: Elk 0 IOTX 0.059698
a7b0f169c981409c7627b66c0a973204c3d3f690a215206de91a6c1d85a7f63c 30274944 2024-05-30 21:46:00 +0000 UTC 18 days ago io1gl6qhljh5s696c6jjs0kgkll9wevnqjleemcgs  IN    Contract: Elk 0 IOTX 0.484
76eb86c1174b0209a70facdeed887686a7cf4a73ab787fd19581463a873c5e63 30274942 2024-05-30 21:45:50 +0000 UTC 18 days ago io1gl6qhljh5s696c6jjs0kgkll9wevnqjleemcgs  IN    Contract: Elk 0 IOTX 0.484
99df6c798320bd6e041a01350ef29e141174e52d72b2e2b4715d38909678a1e7 30274922 2024-05-30 21:44:10 +0000 UTC 18 days ago io1gl6qhljh5s696c6jjs0kgkll9wevnqjleemcgs  IN    Contract: Elk 0 IOTX 0.484
6265673bde501ded186463b1b0f937bba9d00cccb7e8e576ea10ae137f4393d1 30274916 2024-05-30 21:43:40 +0000 UTC 18 days ago io1gl6qhljh5s696c6jjs0kgkll9wevnqjleemcgs  IN    Contract: Elk 0 IOTX 0.484
f095c97b978bdc2c4ab8765bd84e2f25ff586c3d73f643ad03d11f95e4ce8dbd 28898640 2024-03-12 05:19:10 +0000 UTC 3 months ago io1kyvqymrgl4ls8mauman4m65k6cjupp892a69n3  IN    Contract: Elk 0 IOTX 0.097904
0d7af46f7031ad02fbc990b145d68bda4d88db4c333a6ffe3ec14662c79f27ea 28797596 2024-03-06 08:53:05 +0000 UTC 3 months ago io1u99p8w8tjwm9dxn536jh5x5hqf0us2lfmc46p4  IN    Contract: Elk 0 IOTX 0.186646
50287463e23fc36cd6a7e5e6bf002599cbe20110c2729e0bfa353b68384674af 28643114 2024-02-26 10:09:35 +0000 UTC 4 months ago io15lchlhad6dya59fncqtcfm44njwxm6m0j29aq9  IN    Contract: Elk 0 IOTX 0.097924
2b82c252b407f480ff9eb17041bf93b6a9db7f9a49122e9f152273cb14f58ad4 28642754 2024-02-26 09:39:35 +0000 UTC 4 months ago io15lchlhad6dya59fncqtcfm44njwxm6m0j29aq9  IN    Contract: Elk 0 IOTX 0.097924
cea066169784d5297fcb095446fb065feed87514b2bd0502e7f32a8432c2b8cb 28534341 2024-02-20 02:54:55 +0000 UTC 4 months ago io1kyvqymrgl4ls8mauman4m65k6cjupp892a69n3  IN    Contract: Elk 0 IOTX 0.462022
e3030fb867dccb016f320a3ec563d0c4112c2be7614c4fe41300197167e7d5a0 28319250 2024-02-07 14:45:50 +0000 UTC 4 months ago io1n7ufdsgq3c4qdkm7pf3x58utnrqkktcepxxhsd  IN    Contract: Elk 0 IOTX 0.207385
70cfe673c4144ebc6438ecaedeb13c0d280cede7406a38d0386a6c0b0d0845fa 27281355 2023-12-09 10:34:50 +0000 UTC 6 months ago io1td4z2qg2zaqp08hasatth27gzvwh8fxtvwv08n  IN    Contract: Elk 0 IOTX 0.041477
e9a4699c24136317a0b1025038404cd94fd0bbc22f91b4fb2fc15411e6764123 27235602 2023-12-06 18:50:05 +0000 UTC 6 months ago io15lchlhad6dya59fncqtcfm44njwxm6m0j29aq9  IN    Contract: Elk 0 IOTX 0.021598
588044b3c17fc37a80b515aeaaf319adcfad6405197e8a24342301b593d9f190 27235595 2023-12-06 18:49:30 +0000 UTC 6 months ago io15lchlhad6dya59fncqtcfm44njwxm6m0j29aq9  IN    Contract: Elk 0 IOTX 0.019596
eabbe196da7a085fc1fc72994632a0ee7b07c34282ca781b2130b4b69b9b2ec1 27227402 2023-12-06 07:26:30 +0000 UTC 6 months ago io187gxzzp8jam4a72wn49kef4ggjqlypyel4vqq2  IN    Contract: Elk 0 IOTX 0.087101
d24ca0083224588766f3c97158e5b53be39a92e36bf024d14ac6b0c9270cb68d 26195204 2023-10-07 12:11:15 +0000 UTC 8 months ago io1uxuez2tw4jfdyeans9nlmwv4na0zwryzcys705  IN    Contract: Elk 0 IOTX 0.019577
8c0a1bfc2dd74504e05809ef3a84772f803356b40beb131c4f7b18e226823aad 26195199 2023-10-07 12:10:50 +0000 UTC 8 months ago io1uxuez2tw4jfdyeans9nlmwv4na0zwryzcys705  IN    Contract: Elk 0 IOTX 0.019577
2c63fe5da14128d8a15c5148596b053fb02449f49b123b33689fb585afa29f29 26195198 2023-10-07 12:10:45 +0000 UTC 8 months ago io1uxuez2tw4jfdyeans9nlmwv4na0zwryzcys705  IN    Contract: Elk 0 IOTX 0.019577
a906e312122cd64adf8722e28b7f7d7dc7379a7d6d970490e189fc8324e1d6ce 26128458 2023-10-03 15:27:55 +0000 UTC 9 months ago io13j5mhh78ynj86ljce6waezxwg0suqn9ydk4mzw  IN    Contract: Elk 0 IOTX 0.041477
58fa116da6ac61645adec27bfdfa5c7dc1717eadf287e4620fbdc67ebd5b31df 24729753 2023-07-14 16:17:05 +0000 UTC 11 months ago io14g97mxl4lmuyhsdke32y6zg3rew5895w0ry696  IN    Contract: Elk 0 IOTX 0.019577
4a391d86e9bb7c7b26bd262f28addb067b5cc0b278ad5990021a9d5633532829 24705023 2023-07-13 05:56:05 +0000 UTC 11 months ago io1fgys2hn333rjk38xgkwmjdz3wfkrj8v3gpcyy7  IN    Contract: Elk 0 IOTX 0.041477
26d3791264313f264adc18dfc31941e1a0c0135ae1f6c324a81abd637d1cd608 24705000 2023-07-13 05:54:10 +0000 UTC 11 months ago io1fgys2hn333rjk38xgkwmjdz3wfkrj8v3gpcyy7  IN    Contract: Elk 0 IOTX 0.041477
580d766b138b5151e2093091f7aa8e0c54de3c62a09478c7b6382323e46fc082 23976184 2023-06-01 01:26:50 +0000 UTC one year ago io126hn8hx4rufj8h75fmxuhthh0pgve268e2sf0c  IN    Contract: Elk 0 IOTX 0.041477
399b517c71ce19824be22062f66683f763ada244a7c433c0475b2ea23edef448 23876595 2023-05-26 07:06:30 +0000 UTC one year ago io1fgz0n2348zttg45k2j46p4csvg4mqlt29yan4d  IN    Contract: Elk 0 IOTX 0.041518
4d72b666551a41e52db83efa84f3d96210088f6ab6dfa73900d21f7281f6ded3 23459947 2023-05-02 04:14:35 +0000 UTC one year ago io1k98zsyxekkaa0vza3sjrxm5yh2ay02lrwrdgfu  IN    Contract: Elk 0 IOTX 0.019577
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Contract Source Code Verified (Exact Match)

Contract Name:
Elk

Compiler Version
v0.8.10+commit.fc410830

Optimization Enabled:
Yes with 1000 runs

Other Settings:
default evmVersion, None license

Contract Source Code (Solidity)

// File: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/release-v4.1/contracts/utils/math/SafeMath.sol



pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

// CAUTION
// This version of SafeMath should only be used with Solidity 0.8 or later,
// because it relies on the compiler's built in overflow checks.

/**
 * @dev Wrappers over Solidity's arithmetic operations.
 *
 * NOTE: `SafeMath` is no longer needed starting with Solidity 0.8. The compiler
 * now has built in overflow checking.
 */
library SafeMath {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the addition of two unsigned integers, with an overflow flag.
     *
     * _Available since v3.4._
     */
    function tryAdd(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (bool, uint256) {
        unchecked {
            uint256 c = a + b;
            if (c < a) return (false, 0);
            return (true, c);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the substraction of two unsigned integers, with an overflow flag.
     *
     * _Available since v3.4._
     */
    function trySub(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (bool, uint256) {
        unchecked {
            if (b > a) return (false, 0);
            return (true, a - b);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the multiplication of two unsigned integers, with an overflow flag.
     *
     * _Available since v3.4._
     */
    function tryMul(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (bool, uint256) {
        unchecked {
            // Gas optimization: this is cheaper than requiring 'a' not being zero, but the
            // benefit is lost if 'b' is also tested.
            // See: https://github.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/pull/522
            if (a == 0) return (true, 0);
            uint256 c = a * b;
            if (c / a != b) return (false, 0);
            return (true, c);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the division of two unsigned integers, with a division by zero flag.
     *
     * _Available since v3.4._
     */
    function tryDiv(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (bool, uint256) {
        unchecked {
            if (b == 0) return (false, 0);
            return (true, a / b);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the remainder of dividing two unsigned integers, with a division by zero flag.
     *
     * _Available since v3.4._
     */
    function tryMod(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (bool, uint256) {
        unchecked {
            if (b == 0) return (false, 0);
            return (true, a % b);
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the addition of two unsigned integers, reverting on
     * overflow.
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `+` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - Addition cannot overflow.
     */
    function add(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return a + b;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the subtraction of two unsigned integers, reverting on
     * overflow (when the result is negative).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `-` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - Subtraction cannot overflow.
     */
    function sub(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return a - b;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the multiplication of two unsigned integers, reverting on
     * overflow.
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `*` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - Multiplication cannot overflow.
     */
    function mul(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return a * b;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the integer division of two unsigned integers, reverting on
     * division by zero. The result is rounded towards zero.
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `/` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The divisor cannot be zero.
     */
    function div(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return a / b;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the remainder of dividing two unsigned integers. (unsigned integer modulo),
     * reverting when dividing by zero.
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `%` operator. This function uses a `revert`
     * opcode (which leaves remaining gas untouched) while Solidity uses an
     * invalid opcode to revert (consuming all remaining gas).
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The divisor cannot be zero.
     */
    function mod(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return a % b;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the subtraction of two unsigned integers, reverting with custom message on
     * overflow (when the result is negative).
     *
     * CAUTION: This function is deprecated because it requires allocating memory for the error
     * message unnecessarily. For custom revert reasons use {trySub}.
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `-` operator.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - Subtraction cannot overflow.
     */
    function sub(uint256 a, uint256 b, string memory errorMessage) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        unchecked {
            require(b <= a, errorMessage);
            return a - b;
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the integer division of two unsigned integers, reverting with custom message on
     * division by zero. The result is rounded towards zero.
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `%` operator. This function uses a `revert`
     * opcode (which leaves remaining gas untouched) while Solidity uses an
     * invalid opcode to revert (consuming all remaining gas).
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `/` operator. Note: this function uses a
     * `revert` opcode (which leaves remaining gas untouched) while Solidity
     * uses an invalid opcode to revert (consuming all remaining gas).
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The divisor cannot be zero.
     */
    function div(uint256 a, uint256 b, string memory errorMessage) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        unchecked {
            require(b > 0, errorMessage);
            return a / b;
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the remainder of dividing two unsigned integers. (unsigned integer modulo),
     * reverting with custom message when dividing by zero.
     *
     * CAUTION: This function is deprecated because it requires allocating memory for the error
     * message unnecessarily. For custom revert reasons use {tryMod}.
     *
     * Counterpart to Solidity's `%` operator. This function uses a `revert`
     * opcode (which leaves remaining gas untouched) while Solidity uses an
     * invalid opcode to revert (consuming all remaining gas).
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The divisor cannot be zero.
     */
    function mod(uint256 a, uint256 b, string memory errorMessage) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        unchecked {
            require(b > 0, errorMessage);
            return a % b;
        }
    }
}

// File: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/release-v4.1/contracts/utils/structs/EnumerableSet.sol



pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Library for managing
 * https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Set_(abstract_data_type)[sets] of primitive
 * types.
 *
 * Sets have the following properties:
 *
 * - Elements are added, removed, and checked for existence in constant time
 * (O(1)).
 * - Elements are enumerated in O(n). No guarantees are made on the ordering.
 *
 * ```
 * contract Example {
 *     // Add the library methods
 *     using EnumerableSet for EnumerableSet.AddressSet;
 *
 *     // Declare a set state variable
 *     EnumerableSet.AddressSet private mySet;
 * }
 * ```
 *
 * As of v3.3.0, sets of type `bytes32` (`Bytes32Set`), `address` (`AddressSet`)
 * and `uint256` (`UintSet`) are supported.
 */
library EnumerableSet {
    // To implement this library for multiple types with as little code
    // repetition as possible, we write it in terms of a generic Set type with
    // bytes32 values.
    // The Set implementation uses private functions, and user-facing
    // implementations (such as AddressSet) are just wrappers around the
    // underlying Set.
    // This means that we can only create new EnumerableSets for types that fit
    // in bytes32.

    struct Set {
        // Storage of set values
        bytes32[] _values;

        // Position of the value in the `values` array, plus 1 because index 0
        // means a value is not in the set.
        mapping (bytes32 => uint256) _indexes;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Add a value to a set. O(1).
     *
     * Returns true if the value was added to the set, that is if it was not
     * already present.
     */
    function _add(Set storage set, bytes32 value) private returns (bool) {
        if (!_contains(set, value)) {
            set._values.push(value);
            // The value is stored at length-1, but we add 1 to all indexes
            // and use 0 as a sentinel value
            set._indexes[value] = set._values.length;
            return true;
        } else {
            return false;
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Removes a value from a set. O(1).
     *
     * Returns true if the value was removed from the set, that is if it was
     * present.
     */
    function _remove(Set storage set, bytes32 value) private returns (bool) {
        // We read and store the value's index to prevent multiple reads from the same storage slot
        uint256 valueIndex = set._indexes[value];

        if (valueIndex != 0) { // Equivalent to contains(set, value)
            // To delete an element from the _values array in O(1), we swap the element to delete with the last one in
            // the array, and then remove the last element (sometimes called as 'swap and pop').
            // This modifies the order of the array, as noted in {at}.

            uint256 toDeleteIndex = valueIndex - 1;
            uint256 lastIndex = set._values.length - 1;

            // When the value to delete is the last one, the swap operation is unnecessary. However, since this occurs
            // so rarely, we still do the swap anyway to avoid the gas cost of adding an 'if' statement.

            bytes32 lastvalue = set._values[lastIndex];

            // Move the last value to the index where the value to delete is
            set._values[toDeleteIndex] = lastvalue;
            // Update the index for the moved value
            set._indexes[lastvalue] = valueIndex; // Replace lastvalue's index to valueIndex

            // Delete the slot where the moved value was stored
            set._values.pop();

            // Delete the index for the deleted slot
            delete set._indexes[value];

            return true;
        } else {
            return false;
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns true if the value is in the set. O(1).
     */
    function _contains(Set storage set, bytes32 value) private view returns (bool) {
        return set._indexes[value] != 0;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the number of values on the set. O(1).
     */
    function _length(Set storage set) private view returns (uint256) {
        return set._values.length;
    }

   /**
    * @dev Returns the value stored at position `index` in the set. O(1).
    *
    * Note that there are no guarantees on the ordering of values inside the
    * array, and it may change when more values are added or removed.
    *
    * Requirements:
    *
    * - `index` must be strictly less than {length}.
    */
    function _at(Set storage set, uint256 index) private view returns (bytes32) {
        require(set._values.length > index, "EnumerableSet: index out of bounds");
        return set._values[index];
    }

    // Bytes32Set

    struct Bytes32Set {
        Set _inner;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Add a value to a set. O(1).
     *
     * Returns true if the value was added to the set, that is if it was not
     * already present.
     */
    function add(Bytes32Set storage set, bytes32 value) internal returns (bool) {
        return _add(set._inner, value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Removes a value from a set. O(1).
     *
     * Returns true if the value was removed from the set, that is if it was
     * present.
     */
    function remove(Bytes32Set storage set, bytes32 value) internal returns (bool) {
        return _remove(set._inner, value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns true if the value is in the set. O(1).
     */
    function contains(Bytes32Set storage set, bytes32 value) internal view returns (bool) {
        return _contains(set._inner, value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the number of values in the set. O(1).
     */
    function length(Bytes32Set storage set) internal view returns (uint256) {
        return _length(set._inner);
    }

   /**
    * @dev Returns the value stored at position `index` in the set. O(1).
    *
    * Note that there are no guarantees on the ordering of values inside the
    * array, and it may change when more values are added or removed.
    *
    * Requirements:
    *
    * - `index` must be strictly less than {length}.
    */
    function at(Bytes32Set storage set, uint256 index) internal view returns (bytes32) {
        return _at(set._inner, index);
    }

    // AddressSet

    struct AddressSet {
        Set _inner;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Add a value to a set. O(1).
     *
     * Returns true if the value was added to the set, that is if it was not
     * already present.
     */
    function add(AddressSet storage set, address value) internal returns (bool) {
        return _add(set._inner, bytes32(uint256(uint160(value))));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Removes a value from a set. O(1).
     *
     * Returns true if the value was removed from the set, that is if it was
     * present.
     */
    function remove(AddressSet storage set, address value) internal returns (bool) {
        return _remove(set._inner, bytes32(uint256(uint160(value))));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns true if the value is in the set. O(1).
     */
    function contains(AddressSet storage set, address value) internal view returns (bool) {
        return _contains(set._inner, bytes32(uint256(uint160(value))));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the number of values in the set. O(1).
     */
    function length(AddressSet storage set) internal view returns (uint256) {
        return _length(set._inner);
    }

   /**
    * @dev Returns the value stored at position `index` in the set. O(1).
    *
    * Note that there are no guarantees on the ordering of values inside the
    * array, and it may change when more values are added or removed.
    *
    * Requirements:
    *
    * - `index` must be strictly less than {length}.
    */
    function at(AddressSet storage set, uint256 index) internal view returns (address) {
        return address(uint160(uint256(_at(set._inner, index))));
    }


    // UintSet

    struct UintSet {
        Set _inner;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Add a value to a set. O(1).
     *
     * Returns true if the value was added to the set, that is if it was not
     * already present.
     */
    function add(UintSet storage set, uint256 value) internal returns (bool) {
        return _add(set._inner, bytes32(value));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Removes a value from a set. O(1).
     *
     * Returns true if the value was removed from the set, that is if it was
     * present.
     */
    function remove(UintSet storage set, uint256 value) internal returns (bool) {
        return _remove(set._inner, bytes32(value));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns true if the value is in the set. O(1).
     */
    function contains(UintSet storage set, uint256 value) internal view returns (bool) {
        return _contains(set._inner, bytes32(value));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the number of values on the set. O(1).
     */
    function length(UintSet storage set) internal view returns (uint256) {
        return _length(set._inner);
    }

   /**
    * @dev Returns the value stored at position `index` in the set. O(1).
    *
    * Note that there are no guarantees on the ordering of values inside the
    * array, and it may change when more values are added or removed.
    *
    * Requirements:
    *
    * - `index` must be strictly less than {length}.
    */
    function at(UintSet storage set, uint256 index) internal view returns (uint256) {
        return uint256(_at(set._inner, index));
    }
}

// File: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/release-v4.1/contracts/utils/introspection/IERC165.sol



pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Interface of the ERC165 standard, as defined in the
 * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-165[EIP].
 *
 * Implementers can declare support of contract interfaces, which can then be
 * queried by others ({ERC165Checker}).
 *
 * For an implementation, see {ERC165}.
 */
interface IERC165 {
    /**
     * @dev Returns true if this contract implements the interface defined by
     * `interfaceId`. See the corresponding
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-165#how-interfaces-are-identified[EIP section]
     * to learn more about how these ids are created.
     *
     * This function call must use less than 30 000 gas.
     */
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) external view returns (bool);
}

// File: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/release-v4.1/contracts/utils/introspection/ERC165.sol



pragma solidity ^0.8.0;


/**
 * @dev Implementation of the {IERC165} interface.
 *
 * Contracts that want to implement ERC165 should inherit from this contract and override {supportsInterface} to check
 * for the additional interface id that will be supported. For example:
 *
 * ```solidity
 * function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public view virtual override returns (bool) {
 *     return interfaceId == type(MyInterface).interfaceId || super.supportsInterface(interfaceId);
 * }
 * ```
 *
 * Alternatively, {ERC165Storage} provides an easier to use but more expensive implementation.
 */
abstract contract ERC165 is IERC165 {
    /**
     * @dev See {IERC165-supportsInterface}.
     */
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public view virtual override returns (bool) {
        return interfaceId == type(IERC165).interfaceId;
    }
}

// File: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/release-v4.1/contracts/utils/Strings.sol



pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev String operations.
 */
library Strings {
    bytes16 private constant alphabet = "0123456789abcdef";

    /**
     * @dev Converts a `uint256` to its ASCII `string` decimal representation.
     */
    function toString(uint256 value) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        // Inspired by OraclizeAPI's implementation - MIT licence
        // https://github.com/oraclize/ethereum-api/blob/b42146b063c7d6ee1358846c198246239e9360e8/oraclizeAPI_0.4.25.sol

        if (value == 0) {
            return "0";
        }
        uint256 temp = value;
        uint256 digits;
        while (temp != 0) {
            digits++;
            temp /= 10;
        }
        bytes memory buffer = new bytes(digits);
        while (value != 0) {
            digits -= 1;
            buffer[digits] = bytes1(uint8(48 + uint256(value % 10)));
            value /= 10;
        }
        return string(buffer);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts a `uint256` to its ASCII `string` hexadecimal representation.
     */
    function toHexString(uint256 value) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        if (value == 0) {
            return "0x00";
        }
        uint256 temp = value;
        uint256 length = 0;
        while (temp != 0) {
            length++;
            temp >>= 8;
        }
        return toHexString(value, length);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Converts a `uint256` to its ASCII `string` hexadecimal representation with fixed length.
     */
    function toHexString(uint256 value, uint256 length) internal pure returns (string memory) {
        bytes memory buffer = new bytes(2 * length + 2);
        buffer[0] = "0";
        buffer[1] = "x";
        for (uint256 i = 2 * length + 1; i > 1; --i) {
            buffer[i] = alphabet[value & 0xf];
            value >>= 4;
        }
        require(value == 0, "Strings: hex length insufficient");
        return string(buffer);
    }

}

// File: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/release-v4.1/contracts/utils/Context.sol



pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/*
 * @dev Provides information about the current execution context, including the
 * sender of the transaction and its data. While these are generally available
 * via msg.sender and msg.data, they should not be accessed in such a direct
 * manner, since when dealing with meta-transactions the account sending and
 * paying for execution may not be the actual sender (as far as an application
 * is concerned).
 *
 * This contract is only required for intermediate, library-like contracts.
 */
abstract contract Context {
    function _msgSender() internal view virtual returns (address) {
        return msg.sender;
    }

    function _msgData() internal view virtual returns (bytes calldata) {
        this; // silence state mutability warning without generating bytecode - see https://github.com/ethereum/solidity/issues/2691
        return msg.data;
    }
}

// File: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/release-v4.1/contracts/access/AccessControl.sol



pragma solidity ^0.8.0;




/**
 * @dev External interface of AccessControl declared to support ERC165 detection.
 */
interface IAccessControl {
    function hasRole(bytes32 role, address account) external view returns (bool);
    function getRoleAdmin(bytes32 role) external view returns (bytes32);
    function grantRole(bytes32 role, address account) external;
    function revokeRole(bytes32 role, address account) external;
    function renounceRole(bytes32 role, address account) external;
}

/**
 * @dev Contract module that allows children to implement role-based access
 * control mechanisms. This is a lightweight version that doesn't allow enumerating role
 * members except through off-chain means by accessing the contract event logs. Some
 * applications may benefit from on-chain enumerability, for those cases see
 * {AccessControlEnumerable}.
 *
 * Roles are referred to by their `bytes32` identifier. These should be exposed
 * in the external API and be unique. The best way to achieve this is by
 * using `public constant` hash digests:
 *
 * ```
 * bytes32 public constant MY_ROLE = keccak256("MY_ROLE");
 * ```
 *
 * Roles can be used to represent a set of permissions. To restrict access to a
 * function call, use {hasRole}:
 *
 * ```
 * function foo() public {
 *     require(hasRole(MY_ROLE, msg.sender));
 *     ...
 * }
 * ```
 *
 * Roles can be granted and revoked dynamically via the {grantRole} and
 * {revokeRole} functions. Each role has an associated admin role, and only
 * accounts that have a role's admin role can call {grantRole} and {revokeRole}.
 *
 * By default, the admin role for all roles is `DEFAULT_ADMIN_ROLE`, which means
 * that only accounts with this role will be able to grant or revoke other
 * roles. More complex role relationships can be created by using
 * {_setRoleAdmin}.
 *
 * WARNING: The `DEFAULT_ADMIN_ROLE` is also its own admin: it has permission to
 * grant and revoke this role. Extra precautions should be taken to secure
 * accounts that have been granted it.
 */
abstract contract AccessControl is Context, IAccessControl, ERC165 {
    struct RoleData {
        mapping (address => bool) members;
        bytes32 adminRole;
    }

    mapping (bytes32 => RoleData) private _roles;

    bytes32 public constant DEFAULT_ADMIN_ROLE = 0x00;

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `newAdminRole` is set as ``role``'s admin role, replacing `previousAdminRole`
     *
     * `DEFAULT_ADMIN_ROLE` is the starting admin for all roles, despite
     * {RoleAdminChanged} not being emitted signaling this.
     *
     * _Available since v3.1._
     */
    event RoleAdminChanged(bytes32 indexed role, bytes32 indexed previousAdminRole, bytes32 indexed newAdminRole);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `account` is granted `role`.
     *
     * `sender` is the account that originated the contract call, an admin role
     * bearer except when using {_setupRole}.
     */
    event RoleGranted(bytes32 indexed role, address indexed account, address indexed sender);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `account` is revoked `role`.
     *
     * `sender` is the account that originated the contract call:
     *   - if using `revokeRole`, it is the admin role bearer
     *   - if using `renounceRole`, it is the role bearer (i.e. `account`)
     */
    event RoleRevoked(bytes32 indexed role, address indexed account, address indexed sender);

    /**
     * @dev Modifier that checks that an account has a specific role. Reverts
     * with a standardized message including the required role.
     *
     * The format of the revert reason is given by the following regular expression:
     *
     *  /^AccessControl: account (0x[0-9a-f]{20}) is missing role (0x[0-9a-f]{32})$/
     *
     * _Available since v4.1._
     */
    modifier onlyRole(bytes32 role) {
        _checkRole(role, _msgSender());
        _;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC165-supportsInterface}.
     */
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public view virtual override returns (bool) {
        return interfaceId == type(IAccessControl).interfaceId
            || super.supportsInterface(interfaceId);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns `true` if `account` has been granted `role`.
     */
    function hasRole(bytes32 role, address account) public view override returns (bool) {
        return _roles[role].members[account];
    }

    /**
     * @dev Revert with a standard message if `account` is missing `role`.
     *
     * The format of the revert reason is given by the following regular expression:
     *
     *  /^AccessControl: account (0x[0-9a-f]{20}) is missing role (0x[0-9a-f]{32})$/
     */
    function _checkRole(bytes32 role, address account) internal view {
        if(!hasRole(role, account)) {
            revert(string(abi.encodePacked(
                "AccessControl: account ",
                Strings.toHexString(uint160(account), 20),
                " is missing role ",
                Strings.toHexString(uint256(role), 32)
            )));
        }
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the admin role that controls `role`. See {grantRole} and
     * {revokeRole}.
     *
     * To change a role's admin, use {_setRoleAdmin}.
     */
    function getRoleAdmin(bytes32 role) public view override returns (bytes32) {
        return _roles[role].adminRole;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Grants `role` to `account`.
     *
     * If `account` had not been already granted `role`, emits a {RoleGranted}
     * event.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - the caller must have ``role``'s admin role.
     */
    function grantRole(bytes32 role, address account) public virtual override onlyRole(getRoleAdmin(role)) {
        _grantRole(role, account);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Revokes `role` from `account`.
     *
     * If `account` had been granted `role`, emits a {RoleRevoked} event.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - the caller must have ``role``'s admin role.
     */
    function revokeRole(bytes32 role, address account) public virtual override onlyRole(getRoleAdmin(role)) {
        _revokeRole(role, account);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Revokes `role` from the calling account.
     *
     * Roles are often managed via {grantRole} and {revokeRole}: this function's
     * purpose is to provide a mechanism for accounts to lose their privileges
     * if they are compromised (such as when a trusted device is misplaced).
     *
     * If the calling account had been granted `role`, emits a {RoleRevoked}
     * event.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - the caller must be `account`.
     */
    function renounceRole(bytes32 role, address account) public virtual override {
        require(account == _msgSender(), "AccessControl: can only renounce roles for self");

        _revokeRole(role, account);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Grants `role` to `account`.
     *
     * If `account` had not been already granted `role`, emits a {RoleGranted}
     * event. Note that unlike {grantRole}, this function doesn't perform any
     * checks on the calling account.
     *
     * [WARNING]
     * ====
     * This function should only be called from the constructor when setting
     * up the initial roles for the system.
     *
     * Using this function in any other way is effectively circumventing the admin
     * system imposed by {AccessControl}.
     * ====
     */
    function _setupRole(bytes32 role, address account) internal virtual {
        _grantRole(role, account);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Sets `adminRole` as ``role``'s admin role.
     *
     * Emits a {RoleAdminChanged} event.
     */
    function _setRoleAdmin(bytes32 role, bytes32 adminRole) internal virtual {
        emit RoleAdminChanged(role, getRoleAdmin(role), adminRole);
        _roles[role].adminRole = adminRole;
    }

    function _grantRole(bytes32 role, address account) private {
        if (!hasRole(role, account)) {
            _roles[role].members[account] = true;
            emit RoleGranted(role, account, _msgSender());
        }
    }

    function _revokeRole(bytes32 role, address account) private {
        if (hasRole(role, account)) {
            _roles[role].members[account] = false;
            emit RoleRevoked(role, account, _msgSender());
        }
    }
}

// File: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/release-v4.1/contracts/access/AccessControlEnumerable.sol



pragma solidity ^0.8.0;



/**
 * @dev External interface of AccessControlEnumerable declared to support ERC165 detection.
 */
interface IAccessControlEnumerable {
    function getRoleMember(bytes32 role, uint256 index) external view returns (address);
    function getRoleMemberCount(bytes32 role) external view returns (uint256);
}

/**
 * @dev Extension of {AccessControl} that allows enumerating the members of each role.
 */
abstract contract AccessControlEnumerable is IAccessControlEnumerable, AccessControl {
    using EnumerableSet for EnumerableSet.AddressSet;

    mapping (bytes32 => EnumerableSet.AddressSet) private _roleMembers;

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC165-supportsInterface}.
     */
    function supportsInterface(bytes4 interfaceId) public view virtual override returns (bool) {
        return interfaceId == type(IAccessControlEnumerable).interfaceId
            || super.supportsInterface(interfaceId);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns one of the accounts that have `role`. `index` must be a
     * value between 0 and {getRoleMemberCount}, non-inclusive.
     *
     * Role bearers are not sorted in any particular way, and their ordering may
     * change at any point.
     *
     * WARNING: When using {getRoleMember} and {getRoleMemberCount}, make sure
     * you perform all queries on the same block. See the following
     * https://forum.openzeppelin.com/t/iterating-over-elements-on-enumerableset-in-openzeppelin-contracts/2296[forum post]
     * for more information.
     */
    function getRoleMember(bytes32 role, uint256 index) public view override returns (address) {
        return _roleMembers[role].at(index);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the number of accounts that have `role`. Can be used
     * together with {getRoleMember} to enumerate all bearers of a role.
     */
    function getRoleMemberCount(bytes32 role) public view override returns (uint256) {
        return _roleMembers[role].length();
    }

    /**
     * @dev Overload {grantRole} to track enumerable memberships
     */
    function grantRole(bytes32 role, address account) public virtual override {
        super.grantRole(role, account);
        _roleMembers[role].add(account);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Overload {revokeRole} to track enumerable memberships
     */
    function revokeRole(bytes32 role, address account) public virtual override {
        super.revokeRole(role, account);
        _roleMembers[role].remove(account);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Overload {renounceRole} to track enumerable memberships
     */
    function renounceRole(bytes32 role, address account) public virtual override {
        super.renounceRole(role, account);
        _roleMembers[role].remove(account);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Overload {_setupRole} to track enumerable memberships
     */
    function _setupRole(bytes32 role, address account) internal virtual override {
        super._setupRole(role, account);
        _roleMembers[role].add(account);
    }
}

// File: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/release-v4.1/contracts/utils/cryptography/ECDSA.sol



pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) operations.
 *
 * These functions can be used to verify that a message was signed by the holder
 * of the private keys of a given address.
 */
library ECDSA {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the address that signed a hashed message (`hash`) with
     * `signature`. This address can then be used for verification purposes.
     *
     * The `ecrecover` EVM opcode allows for malleable (non-unique) signatures:
     * this function rejects them by requiring the `s` value to be in the lower
     * half order, and the `v` value to be either 27 or 28.
     *
     * IMPORTANT: `hash` _must_ be the result of a hash operation for the
     * verification to be secure: it is possible to craft signatures that
     * recover to arbitrary addresses for non-hashed data. A safe way to ensure
     * this is by receiving a hash of the original message (which may otherwise
     * be too long), and then calling {toEthSignedMessageHash} on it.
     */
    function recover(bytes32 hash, bytes memory signature) internal pure returns (address) {
        // Divide the signature in r, s and v variables
        bytes32 r;
        bytes32 s;
        uint8 v;

        // Check the signature length
        // - case 65: r,s,v signature (standard)
        // - case 64: r,vs signature (cf https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2098) _Available since v4.1._
        if (signature.length == 65) {
            // ecrecover takes the signature parameters, and the only way to get them
            // currently is to use assembly.
            // solhint-disable-next-line no-inline-assembly
            assembly {
                r := mload(add(signature, 0x20))
                s := mload(add(signature, 0x40))
                v := byte(0, mload(add(signature, 0x60)))
            }
        } else if (signature.length == 64) {
            // ecrecover takes the signature parameters, and the only way to get them
            // currently is to use assembly.
            // solhint-disable-next-line no-inline-assembly
            assembly {
                let vs := mload(add(signature, 0x40))
                r := mload(add(signature, 0x20))
                s := and(vs, 0x7fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff)
                v := add(shr(255, vs), 27)
            }
        } else {
            revert("ECDSA: invalid signature length");
        }

        return recover(hash, v, r, s);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Overload of {ECDSA-recover} that receives the `v`,
     * `r` and `s` signature fields separately.
     */
    function recover(bytes32 hash, uint8 v, bytes32 r, bytes32 s) internal pure returns (address) {
        // EIP-2 still allows signature malleability for ecrecover(). Remove this possibility and make the signature
        // unique. Appendix F in the Ethereum Yellow paper (https://ethereum.github.io/yellowpaper/paper.pdf), defines
        // the valid range for s in (281): 0 < s < secp256k1n ÷ 2 + 1, and for v in (282): v ∈ {27, 28}. Most
        // signatures from current libraries generate a unique signature with an s-value in the lower half order.
        //
        // If your library generates malleable signatures, such as s-values in the upper range, calculate a new s-value
        // with 0xFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFEBAAEDCE6AF48A03BBFD25E8CD0364141 - s1 and flip v from 27 to 28 or
        // vice versa. If your library also generates signatures with 0/1 for v instead 27/28, add 27 to v to accept
        // these malleable signatures as well.
        require(uint256(s) <= 0x7FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF5D576E7357A4501DDFE92F46681B20A0, "ECDSA: invalid signature 's' value");
        require(v == 27 || v == 28, "ECDSA: invalid signature 'v' value");

        // If the signature is valid (and not malleable), return the signer address
        address signer = ecrecover(hash, v, r, s);
        require(signer != address(0), "ECDSA: invalid signature");

        return signer;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns an Ethereum Signed Message, created from a `hash`. This
     * produces hash corresponding to the one signed with the
     * https://eth.wiki/json-rpc/API#eth_sign[`eth_sign`]
     * JSON-RPC method as part of EIP-191.
     *
     * See {recover}.
     */
    function toEthSignedMessageHash(bytes32 hash) internal pure returns (bytes32) {
        // 32 is the length in bytes of hash,
        // enforced by the type signature above
        return keccak256(abi.encodePacked("\x19Ethereum Signed Message:\n32", hash));
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns an Ethereum Signed Typed Data, created from a
     * `domainSeparator` and a `structHash`. This produces hash corresponding
     * to the one signed with the
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-712[`eth_signTypedData`]
     * JSON-RPC method as part of EIP-712.
     *
     * See {recover}.
     */
    function toTypedDataHash(bytes32 domainSeparator, bytes32 structHash) internal pure returns (bytes32) {
        return keccak256(abi.encodePacked("\x19\x01", domainSeparator, structHash));
    }
}

// File: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/release-v4.1/contracts/utils/cryptography/draft-EIP712.sol



pragma solidity ^0.8.0;


/**
 * @dev https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-712[EIP 712] is a standard for hashing and signing of typed structured data.
 *
 * The encoding specified in the EIP is very generic, and such a generic implementation in Solidity is not feasible,
 * thus this contract does not implement the encoding itself. Protocols need to implement the type-specific encoding
 * they need in their contracts using a combination of `abi.encode` and `keccak256`.
 *
 * This contract implements the EIP 712 domain separator ({_domainSeparatorV4}) that is used as part of the encoding
 * scheme, and the final step of the encoding to obtain the message digest that is then signed via ECDSA
 * ({_hashTypedDataV4}).
 *
 * The implementation of the domain separator was designed to be as efficient as possible while still properly updating
 * the chain id to protect against replay attacks on an eventual fork of the chain.
 *
 * NOTE: This contract implements the version of the encoding known as "v4", as implemented by the JSON RPC method
 * https://docs.metamask.io/guide/signing-data.html[`eth_signTypedDataV4` in MetaMask].
 *
 * _Available since v3.4._
 */
abstract contract EIP712 {
    /* solhint-disable var-name-mixedcase */
    // Cache the domain separator as an immutable value, but also store the chain id that it corresponds to, in order to
    // invalidate the cached domain separator if the chain id changes.
    bytes32 private immutable _CACHED_DOMAIN_SEPARATOR;
    uint256 private immutable _CACHED_CHAIN_ID;

    bytes32 private immutable _HASHED_NAME;
    bytes32 private immutable _HASHED_VERSION;
    bytes32 private immutable _TYPE_HASH;
    /* solhint-enable var-name-mixedcase */

    /**
     * @dev Initializes the domain separator and parameter caches.
     *
     * The meaning of `name` and `version` is specified in
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-712#definition-of-domainseparator[EIP 712]:
     *
     * - `name`: the user readable name of the signing domain, i.e. the name of the DApp or the protocol.
     * - `version`: the current major version of the signing domain.
     *
     * NOTE: These parameters cannot be changed except through a xref:learn::upgrading-smart-contracts.adoc[smart
     * contract upgrade].
     */
    constructor(string memory name, string memory version) {
        bytes32 hashedName = keccak256(bytes(name));
        bytes32 hashedVersion = keccak256(bytes(version));
        bytes32 typeHash = keccak256("EIP712Domain(string name,string version,uint256 chainId,address verifyingContract)");
        _HASHED_NAME = hashedName;
        _HASHED_VERSION = hashedVersion;
        _CACHED_CHAIN_ID = block.chainid;
        _CACHED_DOMAIN_SEPARATOR = _buildDomainSeparator(typeHash, hashedName, hashedVersion);
        _TYPE_HASH = typeHash;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the domain separator for the current chain.
     */
    function _domainSeparatorV4() internal view returns (bytes32) {
        if (block.chainid == _CACHED_CHAIN_ID) {
            return _CACHED_DOMAIN_SEPARATOR;
        } else {
            return _buildDomainSeparator(_TYPE_HASH, _HASHED_NAME, _HASHED_VERSION);
        }
    }

    function _buildDomainSeparator(bytes32 typeHash, bytes32 name, bytes32 version) private view returns (bytes32) {
        return keccak256(
            abi.encode(
                typeHash,
                name,
                version,
                block.chainid,
                address(this)
            )
        );
    }

    /**
     * @dev Given an already https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-712#definition-of-hashstruct[hashed struct], this
     * function returns the hash of the fully encoded EIP712 message for this domain.
     *
     * This hash can be used together with {ECDSA-recover} to obtain the signer of a message. For example:
     *
     * ```solidity
     * bytes32 digest = _hashTypedDataV4(keccak256(abi.encode(
     *     keccak256("Mail(address to,string contents)"),
     *     mailTo,
     *     keccak256(bytes(mailContents))
     * )));
     * address signer = ECDSA.recover(digest, signature);
     * ```
     */
    function _hashTypedDataV4(bytes32 structHash) internal view virtual returns (bytes32) {
        return ECDSA.toTypedDataHash(_domainSeparatorV4(), structHash);
    }
}

// File: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/release-v4.1/contracts/token/ERC20/IERC20.sol



pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Interface of the ERC20 standard as defined in the EIP.
 */
interface IERC20 {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the amount of tokens in existence.
     */
    function totalSupply() external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the amount of tokens owned by `account`.
     */
    function balanceOf(address account) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Moves `amount` tokens from the caller's account to `recipient`.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function transfer(address recipient, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the remaining number of tokens that `spender` will be
     * allowed to spend on behalf of `owner` through {transferFrom}. This is
     * zero by default.
     *
     * This value changes when {approve} or {transferFrom} are called.
     */
    function allowance(address owner, address spender) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Sets `amount` as the allowance of `spender` over the caller's tokens.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * IMPORTANT: Beware that changing an allowance with this method brings the risk
     * that someone may use both the old and the new allowance by unfortunate
     * transaction ordering. One possible solution to mitigate this race
     * condition is to first reduce the spender's allowance to 0 and set the
     * desired value afterwards:
     * https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs/issues/20#issuecomment-263524729
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event.
     */
    function approve(address spender, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Moves `amount` tokens from `sender` to `recipient` using the
     * allowance mechanism. `amount` is then deducted from the caller's
     * allowance.
     *
     * Returns a boolean value indicating whether the operation succeeded.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     */
    function transferFrom(address sender, address recipient, uint256 amount) external returns (bool);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when `value` tokens are moved from one account (`from`) to
     * another (`to`).
     *
     * Note that `value` may be zero.
     */
    event Transfer(address indexed from, address indexed to, uint256 value);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when the allowance of a `spender` for an `owner` is set by
     * a call to {approve}. `value` is the new allowance.
     */
    event Approval(address indexed owner, address indexed spender, uint256 value);
}

// File: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/release-v4.1/contracts/token/ERC20/extensions/IERC20Metadata.sol



pragma solidity ^0.8.0;


/**
 * @dev Interface for the optional metadata functions from the ERC20 standard.
 *
 * _Available since v4.1._
 */
interface IERC20Metadata is IERC20 {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the name of the token.
     */
    function name() external view returns (string memory);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the symbol of the token.
     */
    function symbol() external view returns (string memory);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the decimals places of the token.
     */
    function decimals() external view returns (uint8);
}

// File: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/release-v4.1/contracts/token/ERC20/ERC20.sol



pragma solidity ^0.8.0;




/**
 * @dev Implementation of the {IERC20} interface.
 *
 * This implementation is agnostic to the way tokens are created. This means
 * that a supply mechanism has to be added in a derived contract using {_mint}.
 * For a generic mechanism see {ERC20PresetMinterPauser}.
 *
 * TIP: For a detailed writeup see our guide
 * https://forum.zeppelin.solutions/t/how-to-implement-erc20-supply-mechanisms/226[How
 * to implement supply mechanisms].
 *
 * We have followed general OpenZeppelin guidelines: functions revert instead
 * of returning `false` on failure. This behavior is nonetheless conventional
 * and does not conflict with the expectations of ERC20 applications.
 *
 * Additionally, an {Approval} event is emitted on calls to {transferFrom}.
 * This allows applications to reconstruct the allowance for all accounts just
 * by listening to said events. Other implementations of the EIP may not emit
 * these events, as it isn't required by the specification.
 *
 * Finally, the non-standard {decreaseAllowance} and {increaseAllowance}
 * functions have been added to mitigate the well-known issues around setting
 * allowances. See {IERC20-approve}.
 */
contract ERC20 is Context, IERC20, IERC20Metadata {
    mapping (address => uint256) private _balances;

    mapping (address => mapping (address => uint256)) private _allowances;

    uint256 private _totalSupply;

    string private _name;
    string private _symbol;

    /**
     * @dev Sets the values for {name} and {symbol}.
     *
     * The defaut value of {decimals} is 18. To select a different value for
     * {decimals} you should overload it.
     *
     * All two of these values are immutable: they can only be set once during
     * construction.
     */
    constructor (string memory name_, string memory symbol_) {
        _name = name_;
        _symbol = symbol_;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the name of the token.
     */
    function name() public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        return _name;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the symbol of the token, usually a shorter version of the
     * name.
     */
    function symbol() public view virtual override returns (string memory) {
        return _symbol;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the number of decimals used to get its user representation.
     * For example, if `decimals` equals `2`, a balance of `505` tokens should
     * be displayed to a user as `5,05` (`505 / 10 ** 2`).
     *
     * Tokens usually opt for a value of 18, imitating the relationship between
     * Ether and Wei. This is the value {ERC20} uses, unless this function is
     * overridden;
     *
     * NOTE: This information is only used for _display_ purposes: it in
     * no way affects any of the arithmetic of the contract, including
     * {IERC20-balanceOf} and {IERC20-transfer}.
     */
    function decimals() public view virtual override returns (uint8) {
        return 18;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20-totalSupply}.
     */
    function totalSupply() public view virtual override returns (uint256) {
        return _totalSupply;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20-balanceOf}.
     */
    function balanceOf(address account) public view virtual override returns (uint256) {
        return _balances[account];
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20-transfer}.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `recipient` cannot be the zero address.
     * - the caller must have a balance of at least `amount`.
     */
    function transfer(address recipient, uint256 amount) public virtual override returns (bool) {
        _transfer(_msgSender(), recipient, amount);
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20-allowance}.
     */
    function allowance(address owner, address spender) public view virtual override returns (uint256) {
        return _allowances[owner][spender];
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20-approve}.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
     */
    function approve(address spender, uint256 amount) public virtual override returns (bool) {
        _approve(_msgSender(), spender, amount);
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20-transferFrom}.
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event indicating the updated allowance. This is not
     * required by the EIP. See the note at the beginning of {ERC20}.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `sender` and `recipient` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `sender` must have a balance of at least `amount`.
     * - the caller must have allowance for ``sender``'s tokens of at least
     * `amount`.
     */
    function transferFrom(address sender, address recipient, uint256 amount) public virtual override returns (bool) {
        _transfer(sender, recipient, amount);

        uint256 currentAllowance = _allowances[sender][_msgSender()];
        require(currentAllowance >= amount, "ERC20: transfer amount exceeds allowance");
        _approve(sender, _msgSender(), currentAllowance - amount);

        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Atomically increases the allowance granted to `spender` by the caller.
     *
     * This is an alternative to {approve} that can be used as a mitigation for
     * problems described in {IERC20-approve}.
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event indicating the updated allowance.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
     */
    function increaseAllowance(address spender, uint256 addedValue) public virtual returns (bool) {
        _approve(_msgSender(), spender, _allowances[_msgSender()][spender] + addedValue);
        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Atomically decreases the allowance granted to `spender` by the caller.
     *
     * This is an alternative to {approve} that can be used as a mitigation for
     * problems described in {IERC20-approve}.
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event indicating the updated allowance.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `spender` must have allowance for the caller of at least
     * `subtractedValue`.
     */
    function decreaseAllowance(address spender, uint256 subtractedValue) public virtual returns (bool) {
        uint256 currentAllowance = _allowances[_msgSender()][spender];
        require(currentAllowance >= subtractedValue, "ERC20: decreased allowance below zero");
        _approve(_msgSender(), spender, currentAllowance - subtractedValue);

        return true;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Moves tokens `amount` from `sender` to `recipient`.
     *
     * This is internal function is equivalent to {transfer}, and can be used to
     * e.g. implement automatic token fees, slashing mechanisms, etc.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `sender` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `recipient` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `sender` must have a balance of at least `amount`.
     */
    function _transfer(address sender, address recipient, uint256 amount) internal virtual {
        require(sender != address(0), "ERC20: transfer from the zero address");
        require(recipient != address(0), "ERC20: transfer to the zero address");

        _beforeTokenTransfer(sender, recipient, amount);

        uint256 senderBalance = _balances[sender];
        require(senderBalance >= amount, "ERC20: transfer amount exceeds balance");
        _balances[sender] = senderBalance - amount;
        _balances[recipient] += amount;

        emit Transfer(sender, recipient, amount);
    }

    /** @dev Creates `amount` tokens and assigns them to `account`, increasing
     * the total supply.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event with `from` set to the zero address.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `to` cannot be the zero address.
     */
    function _mint(address account, uint256 amount) internal virtual {
        require(account != address(0), "ERC20: mint to the zero address");

        _beforeTokenTransfer(address(0), account, amount);

        _totalSupply += amount;
        _balances[account] += amount;
        emit Transfer(address(0), account, amount);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Destroys `amount` tokens from `account`, reducing the
     * total supply.
     *
     * Emits a {Transfer} event with `to` set to the zero address.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `account` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `account` must have at least `amount` tokens.
     */
    function _burn(address account, uint256 amount) internal virtual {
        require(account != address(0), "ERC20: burn from the zero address");

        _beforeTokenTransfer(account, address(0), amount);

        uint256 accountBalance = _balances[account];
        require(accountBalance >= amount, "ERC20: burn amount exceeds balance");
        _balances[account] = accountBalance - amount;
        _totalSupply -= amount;

        emit Transfer(account, address(0), amount);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Sets `amount` as the allowance of `spender` over the `owner` s tokens.
     *
     * This internal function is equivalent to `approve`, and can be used to
     * e.g. set automatic allowances for certain subsystems, etc.
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `owner` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
     */
    function _approve(address owner, address spender, uint256 amount) internal virtual {
        require(owner != address(0), "ERC20: approve from the zero address");
        require(spender != address(0), "ERC20: approve to the zero address");

        _allowances[owner][spender] = amount;
        emit Approval(owner, spender, amount);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Hook that is called before any transfer of tokens. This includes
     * minting and burning.
     *
     * Calling conditions:
     *
     * - when `from` and `to` are both non-zero, `amount` of ``from``'s tokens
     * will be to transferred to `to`.
     * - when `from` is zero, `amount` tokens will be minted for `to`.
     * - when `to` is zero, `amount` of ``from``'s tokens will be burned.
     * - `from` and `to` are never both zero.
     *
     * To learn more about hooks, head to xref:ROOT:extending-contracts.adoc#using-hooks[Using Hooks].
     */
    function _beforeTokenTransfer(address from, address to, uint256 amount) internal virtual { }
}

// File: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/release-v4.1/contracts/token/ERC20/extensions/ERC20Capped.sol



pragma solidity ^0.8.0;


/**
 * @dev Extension of {ERC20} that adds a cap to the supply of tokens.
 */
abstract contract ERC20Capped is ERC20 {
    uint256 immutable private _cap;

    /**
     * @dev Sets the value of the `cap`. This value is immutable, it can only be
     * set once during construction.
     */
    constructor (uint256 cap_) {
        require(cap_ > 0, "ERC20Capped: cap is 0");
        _cap = cap_;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the cap on the token's total supply.
     */
    function cap() public view virtual returns (uint256) {
        return _cap;
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {ERC20-_mint}.
     */
    function _mint(address account, uint256 amount) internal virtual override {
        require(ERC20.totalSupply() + amount <= cap(), "ERC20Capped: cap exceeded");
        super._mint(account, amount);
    }
}

// File: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/release-v4.1/contracts/token/ERC20/extensions/draft-IERC20Permit.sol



pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Interface of the ERC20 Permit extension allowing approvals to be made via signatures, as defined in
 * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2612[EIP-2612].
 *
 * Adds the {permit} method, which can be used to change an account's ERC20 allowance (see {IERC20-allowance}) by
 * presenting a message signed by the account. By not relying on {IERC20-approve}, the token holder account doesn't
 * need to send a transaction, and thus is not required to hold Ether at all.
 */
interface IERC20Permit {
    /**
     * @dev Sets `value` as the allowance of `spender` over ``owner``'s tokens,
     * given ``owner``'s signed approval.
     *
     * IMPORTANT: The same issues {IERC20-approve} has related to transaction
     * ordering also apply here.
     *
     * Emits an {Approval} event.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - `spender` cannot be the zero address.
     * - `deadline` must be a timestamp in the future.
     * - `v`, `r` and `s` must be a valid `secp256k1` signature from `owner`
     * over the EIP712-formatted function arguments.
     * - the signature must use ``owner``'s current nonce (see {nonces}).
     *
     * For more information on the signature format, see the
     * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2612#specification[relevant EIP
     * section].
     */
    function permit(address owner, address spender, uint256 value, uint256 deadline, uint8 v, bytes32 r, bytes32 s) external;

    /**
     * @dev Returns the current nonce for `owner`. This value must be
     * included whenever a signature is generated for {permit}.
     *
     * Every successful call to {permit} increases ``owner``'s nonce by one. This
     * prevents a signature from being used multiple times.
     */
    function nonces(address owner) external view returns (uint256);

    /**
     * @dev Returns the domain separator used in the encoding of the signature for {permit}, as defined by {EIP712}.
     */
    // solhint-disable-next-line func-name-mixedcase
    function DOMAIN_SEPARATOR() external view returns (bytes32);
}

// File: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/release-v4.1/contracts/token/ERC20/extensions/draft-ERC20Permit.sol



pragma solidity ^0.8.0;






/**
 * @dev Implementation of the ERC20 Permit extension allowing approvals to be made via signatures, as defined in
 * https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2612[EIP-2612].
 *
 * Adds the {permit} method, which can be used to change an account's ERC20 allowance (see {IERC20-allowance}) by
 * presenting a message signed by the account. By not relying on `{IERC20-approve}`, the token holder account doesn't
 * need to send a transaction, and thus is not required to hold Ether at all.
 *
 * _Available since v3.4._
 */
abstract contract ERC20Permit is ERC20, IERC20Permit, EIP712 {
    using Counters for Counters.Counter;

    mapping (address => Counters.Counter) private _nonces;

    // solhint-disable-next-line var-name-mixedcase
    bytes32 private immutable _PERMIT_TYPEHASH = keccak256("Permit(address owner,address spender,uint256 value,uint256 nonce,uint256 deadline)");

    /**
     * @dev Initializes the {EIP712} domain separator using the `name` parameter, and setting `version` to `"1"`.
     *
     * It's a good idea to use the same `name` that is defined as the ERC20 token name.
     */
    constructor(string memory name) EIP712(name, "1") {
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20Permit-permit}.
     */
    function permit(address owner, address spender, uint256 value, uint256 deadline, uint8 v, bytes32 r, bytes32 s) public virtual override {
        // solhint-disable-next-line not-rely-on-time
        require(block.timestamp <= deadline, "ERC20Permit: expired deadline");

        bytes32 structHash = keccak256(
            abi.encode(
                _PERMIT_TYPEHASH,
                owner,
                spender,
                value,
                _useNonce(owner),
                deadline
            )
        );

        bytes32 hash = _hashTypedDataV4(structHash);

        address signer = ECDSA.recover(hash, v, r, s);
        require(signer == owner, "ERC20Permit: invalid signature");

        _approve(owner, spender, value);
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20Permit-nonces}.
     */
    function nonces(address owner) public view virtual override returns (uint256) {
        return _nonces[owner].current();
    }

    /**
     * @dev See {IERC20Permit-DOMAIN_SEPARATOR}.
     */
    // solhint-disable-next-line func-name-mixedcase
    function DOMAIN_SEPARATOR() external view override returns (bytes32) {
        return _domainSeparatorV4();
    }

    /**
     * @dev "Consume a nonce": return the current value and increment.
     *
     * _Available since v4.1._
     */
    function _useNonce(address owner) internal virtual returns (uint256 current) {
        Counters.Counter storage nonce = _nonces[owner];
        current = nonce.current();
        nonce.increment();
    }
}

// File: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/release-v4.1/contracts/utils/Counters.sol



pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @title Counters
 * @author Matt Condon (@shrugs)
 * @dev Provides counters that can only be incremented or decremented by one. This can be used e.g. to track the number
 * of elements in a mapping, issuing ERC721 ids, or counting request ids.
 *
 * Include with `using Counters for Counters.Counter;`
 */
library Counters {
    struct Counter {
        // This variable should never be directly accessed by users of the library: interactions must be restricted to
        // the library's function. As of Solidity v0.5.2, this cannot be enforced, though there is a proposal to add
        // this feature: see https://github.com/ethereum/solidity/issues/4637
        uint256 _value; // default: 0
    }

    function current(Counter storage counter) internal view returns (uint256) {
        return counter._value;
    }

    function increment(Counter storage counter) internal {
        unchecked {
            counter._value += 1;
        }
    }

    function decrement(Counter storage counter) internal {
        uint256 value = counter._value;
        require(value > 0, "Counter: decrement overflow");
        unchecked {
            counter._value = value - 1;
        }
    }
}

// File: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/release-v4.1/contracts/utils/math/Math.sol



pragma solidity ^0.8.0;

/**
 * @dev Standard math utilities missing in the Solidity language.
 */
library Math {
    /**
     * @dev Returns the largest of two numbers.
     */
    function max(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return a >= b ? a : b;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the smallest of two numbers.
     */
    function min(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        return a < b ? a : b;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns the average of two numbers. The result is rounded towards
     * zero.
     */
    function average(uint256 a, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256) {
        // (a + b) / 2 can overflow, so we distribute
        return (a / 2) + (b / 2) + ((a % 2 + b % 2) / 2);
    }
}

// File: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/release-v4.1/contracts/utils/Arrays.sol



pragma solidity ^0.8.0;


/**
 * @dev Collection of functions related to array types.
 */
library Arrays {
   /**
     * @dev Searches a sorted `array` and returns the first index that contains
     * a value greater or equal to `element`. If no such index exists (i.e. all
     * values in the array are strictly less than `element`), the array length is
     * returned. Time complexity O(log n).
     *
     * `array` is expected to be sorted in ascending order, and to contain no
     * repeated elements.
     */
    function findUpperBound(uint256[] storage array, uint256 element) internal view returns (uint256) {
        if (array.length == 0) {
            return 0;
        }

        uint256 low = 0;
        uint256 high = array.length;

        while (low < high) {
            uint256 mid = Math.average(low, high);

            // Note that mid will always be strictly less than high (i.e. it will be a valid array index)
            // because Math.average rounds down (it does integer division with truncation).
            if (array[mid] > element) {
                high = mid;
            } else {
                low = mid + 1;
            }
        }

        // At this point `low` is the exclusive upper bound. We will return the inclusive upper bound.
        if (low > 0 && array[low - 1] == element) {
            return low - 1;
        } else {
            return low;
        }
    }
}

// File: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/release-v4.1/contracts/token/ERC20/extensions/ERC20Snapshot.sol



pragma solidity ^0.8.0;




/**
 * @dev This contract extends an ERC20 token with a snapshot mechanism. When a snapshot is created, the balances and
 * total supply at the time are recorded for later access.
 *
 * This can be used to safely create mechanisms based on token balances such as trustless dividends or weighted voting.
 * In naive implementations it's possible to perform a "double spend" attack by reusing the same balance from different
 * accounts. By using snapshots to calculate dividends or voting power, those attacks no longer apply. It can also be
 * used to create an efficient ERC20 forking mechanism.
 *
 * Snapshots are created by the internal {_snapshot} function, which will emit the {Snapshot} event and return a
 * snapshot id. To get the total supply at the time of a snapshot, call the function {totalSupplyAt} with the snapshot
 * id. To get the balance of an account at the time of a snapshot, call the {balanceOfAt} function with the snapshot id
 * and the account address.
 *
 * ==== Gas Costs
 *
 * Snapshots are efficient. Snapshot creation is _O(1)_. Retrieval of balances or total supply from a snapshot is _O(log
 * n)_ in the number of snapshots that have been created, although _n_ for a specific account will generally be much
 * smaller since identical balances in subsequent snapshots are stored as a single entry.
 *
 * There is a constant overhead for normal ERC20 transfers due to the additional snapshot bookkeeping. This overhead is
 * only significant for the first transfer that immediately follows a snapshot for a particular account. Subsequent
 * transfers will have normal cost until the next snapshot, and so on.
 */
abstract contract ERC20Snapshot is ERC20 {
    // Inspired by Jordi Baylina's MiniMeToken to record historical balances:
    // https://github.com/Giveth/minimd/blob/ea04d950eea153a04c51fa510b068b9dded390cb/contracts/MiniMeToken.sol

    using Arrays for uint256[];
    using Counters for Counters.Counter;

    // Snapshotted values have arrays of ids and the value corresponding to that id. These could be an array of a
    // Snapshot struct, but that would impede usage of functions that work on an array.
    struct Snapshots {
        uint256[] ids;
        uint256[] values;
    }

    mapping (address => Snapshots) private _accountBalanceSnapshots;
    Snapshots private _totalSupplySnapshots;

    // Snapshot ids increase monotonically, with the first value being 1. An id of 0 is invalid.
    Counters.Counter private _currentSnapshotId;

    /**
     * @dev Emitted by {_snapshot} when a snapshot identified by `id` is created.
     */
    event Snapshot(uint256 id);

    /**
     * @dev Creates a new snapshot and returns its snapshot id.
     *
     * Emits a {Snapshot} event that contains the same id.
     *
     * {_snapshot} is `internal` and you have to decide how to expose it externally. Its usage may be restricted to a
     * set of accounts, for example using {AccessControl}, or it may be open to the public.
     *
     * [WARNING]
     * ====
     * While an open way of calling {_snapshot} is required for certain trust minimization mechanisms such as forking,
     * you must consider that it can potentially be used by attackers in two ways.
     *
     * First, it can be used to increase the cost of retrieval of values from snapshots, although it will grow
     * logarithmically thus rendering this attack ineffective in the long term. Second, it can be used to target
     * specific accounts and increase the cost of ERC20 transfers for them, in the ways specified in the Gas Costs
     * section above.
     *
     * We haven't measured the actual numbers; if this is something you're interested in please reach out to us.
     * ====
     */
    function _snapshot() internal virtual returns (uint256) {
        _currentSnapshotId.increment();

        uint256 currentId = _currentSnapshotId.current();
        emit Snapshot(currentId);
        return currentId;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Retrieves the balance of `account` at the time `snapshotId` was created.
     */
    function balanceOfAt(address account, uint256 snapshotId) public view virtual returns (uint256) {
        (bool snapshotted, uint256 value) = _valueAt(snapshotId, _accountBalanceSnapshots[account]);

        return snapshotted ? value : balanceOf(account);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Retrieves the total supply at the time `snapshotId` was created.
     */
    function totalSupplyAt(uint256 snapshotId) public view virtual returns(uint256) {
        (bool snapshotted, uint256 value) = _valueAt(snapshotId, _totalSupplySnapshots);

        return snapshotted ? value : totalSupply();
    }


    // Update balance and/or total supply snapshots before the values are modified. This is implemented
    // in the _beforeTokenTransfer hook, which is executed for _mint, _burn, and _transfer operations.
    function _beforeTokenTransfer(address from, address to, uint256 amount) internal virtual override {
      super._beforeTokenTransfer(from, to, amount);

      if (from == address(0)) {
        // mint
        _updateAccountSnapshot(to);
        _updateTotalSupplySnapshot();
      } else if (to == address(0)) {
        // burn
        _updateAccountSnapshot(from);
        _updateTotalSupplySnapshot();
      } else {
        // transfer
        _updateAccountSnapshot(from);
        _updateAccountSnapshot(to);
      }
    }

    function _valueAt(uint256 snapshotId, Snapshots storage snapshots)
        private view returns (bool, uint256)
    {
        require(snapshotId > 0, "ERC20Snapshot: id is 0");
        // solhint-disable-next-line max-line-length
        require(snapshotId <= _currentSnapshotId.current(), "ERC20Snapshot: nonexistent id");

        // When a valid snapshot is queried, there are three possibilities:
        //  a) The queried value was not modified after the snapshot was taken. Therefore, a snapshot entry was never
        //  created for this id, and all stored snapshot ids are smaller than the requested one. The value that corresponds
        //  to this id is the current one.
        //  b) The queried value was modified after the snapshot was taken. Therefore, there will be an entry with the
        //  requested id, and its value is the one to return.
        //  c) More snapshots were created after the requested one, and the queried value was later modified. There will be
        //  no entry for the requested id: the value that corresponds to it is that of the smallest snapshot id that is
        //  larger than the requested one.
        //
        // In summary, we need to find an element in an array, returning the index of the smallest value that is larger if
        // it is not found, unless said value doesn't exist (e.g. when all values are smaller). Arrays.findUpperBound does
        // exactly this.

        uint256 index = snapshots.ids.findUpperBound(snapshotId);

        if (index == snapshots.ids.length) {
            return (false, 0);
        } else {
            return (true, snapshots.values[index]);
        }
    }

    function _updateAccountSnapshot(address account) private {
        _updateSnapshot(_accountBalanceSnapshots[account], balanceOf(account));
    }

    function _updateTotalSupplySnapshot() private {
        _updateSnapshot(_totalSupplySnapshots, totalSupply());
    }

    function _updateSnapshot(Snapshots storage snapshots, uint256 currentValue) private {
        uint256 currentId = _currentSnapshotId.current();
        if (_lastSnapshotId(snapshots.ids) < currentId) {
            snapshots.ids.push(currentId);
            snapshots.values.push(currentValue);
        }
    }

    function _lastSnapshotId(uint256[] storage ids) private view returns (uint256) {
        if (ids.length == 0) {
            return 0;
        } else {
            return ids[ids.length - 1];
        }
    }
}

// File: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/release-v4.1/contracts/security/Pausable.sol



pragma solidity ^0.8.0;


/**
 * @dev Contract module which allows children to implement an emergency stop
 * mechanism that can be triggered by an authorized account.
 *
 * This module is used through inheritance. It will make available the
 * modifiers `whenNotPaused` and `whenPaused`, which can be applied to
 * the functions of your contract. Note that they will not be pausable by
 * simply including this module, only once the modifiers are put in place.
 */
abstract contract Pausable is Context {
    /**
     * @dev Emitted when the pause is triggered by `account`.
     */
    event Paused(address account);

    /**
     * @dev Emitted when the pause is lifted by `account`.
     */
    event Unpaused(address account);

    bool private _paused;

    /**
     * @dev Initializes the contract in unpaused state.
     */
    constructor () {
        _paused = false;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns true if the contract is paused, and false otherwise.
     */
    function paused() public view virtual returns (bool) {
        return _paused;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Modifier to make a function callable only when the contract is not paused.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The contract must not be paused.
     */
    modifier whenNotPaused() {
        require(!paused(), "Pausable: paused");
        _;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Modifier to make a function callable only when the contract is paused.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The contract must be paused.
     */
    modifier whenPaused() {
        require(paused(), "Pausable: not paused");
        _;
    }

    /**
     * @dev Triggers stopped state.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The contract must not be paused.
     */
    function _pause() internal virtual whenNotPaused {
        _paused = true;
        emit Paused(_msgSender());
    }

    /**
     * @dev Returns to normal state.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - The contract must be paused.
     */
    function _unpause() internal virtual whenPaused {
        _paused = false;
        emit Unpaused(_msgSender());
    }
}

// File: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/release-v4.1/contracts/token/ERC20/extensions/ERC20Pausable.sol



pragma solidity ^0.8.0;



/**
 * @dev ERC20 token with pausable token transfers, minting and burning.
 *
 * Useful for scenarios such as preventing trades until the end of an evaluation
 * period, or having an emergency switch for freezing all token transfers in the
 * event of a large bug.
 */
abstract contract ERC20Pausable is ERC20, Pausable {
    /**
     * @dev See {ERC20-_beforeTokenTransfer}.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - the contract must not be paused.
     */
    function _beforeTokenTransfer(address from, address to, uint256 amount) internal virtual override {
        super._beforeTokenTransfer(from, to, amount);

        require(!paused(), "ERC20Pausable: token transfer while paused");
    }
}

// File: https://raw.githubusercontent.com/OpenZeppelin/openzeppelin-contracts/release-v4.1/contracts/token/ERC20/extensions/ERC20Burnable.sol



pragma solidity ^0.8.0;



/**
 * @dev Extension of {ERC20} that allows token holders to destroy both their own
 * tokens and those that they have an allowance for, in a way that can be
 * recognized off-chain (via event analysis).
 */
abstract contract ERC20Burnable is Context, ERC20 {
    /**
     * @dev Destroys `amount` tokens from the caller.
     *
     * See {ERC20-_burn}.
     */
    function burn(uint256 amount) public virtual {
        _burn(_msgSender(), amount);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Destroys `amount` tokens from `account`, deducting from the caller's
     * allowance.
     *
     * See {ERC20-_burn} and {ERC20-allowance}.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - the caller must have allowance for ``accounts``'s tokens of at least
     * `amount`.
     */
    function burnFrom(address account, uint256 amount) public virtual {
        uint256 currentAllowance = allowance(account, _msgSender());
        require(currentAllowance >= amount, "ERC20: burn amount exceeds allowance");
        _approve(account, _msgSender(), currentAllowance - amount);
        _burn(account, amount);
    }
}

// File: contracts/ElkV2.sol



pragma solidity ^0.8.0;










/**
 * @dev {ERC20} token, including:
 *
 *  - ability for holders to burn (destroy) their tokens
 *  - a minter role that allows for token minting (creation)
 *  - a pauser role that allows to stop all token transfers
 *
 * This contract uses {AccessControl} to lock permissioned functions using the
 * different roles - head to its documentation for details.
 *
 * The account that deploys the contract will be granted the minter and pauser
 * roles, as well as the default admin role, which will let it grant both minter
 * and pauser roles to other accounts.
 */
contract Elk is Context, AccessControlEnumerable, ERC20Burnable, ERC20Capped, ERC20Pausable, ERC20Snapshot, ERC20Permit {
    using SafeMath for uint256;

    bytes32 public constant MINTER_ROLE = keccak256("MINTER_ROLE");
    bytes32 public constant PAUSER_ROLE = keccak256("PAUSER_ROLE");

    /**
     * @dev Grants `DEFAULT_ADMIN_ROLE`, `MINTER_ROLE` and `PAUSER_ROLE` to the
     * account that deploys the contract.
     *
     * See {ERC20-constructor}.
     */
    constructor(string memory name, string memory symbol, uint256 cap) ERC20(name, symbol) ERC20Capped(cap) ERC20Permit(name) {
        _setupRole(DEFAULT_ADMIN_ROLE, _msgSender());

        _setupRole(MINTER_ROLE, _msgSender());
        _setupRole(PAUSER_ROLE, _msgSender());
    }

    /**
     * @dev Creates `amount` new tokens for `to`.
     *
     * See {ERC20-_mint}.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - the caller must have the `MINTER_ROLE`.
     */
    function mint(address to, uint256 amount) public virtual {
        require(hasRole(MINTER_ROLE, _msgSender()), "Elk: must have minter role to mint");
        _mint(to, amount);
    }

    /**
     * @dev Pauses all token transfers.
     *
     * See {ERC20Pausable} and {Pausable-_pause}.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - the caller must have the `PAUSER_ROLE`.
     */
    function pause() public virtual {
        require(hasRole(PAUSER_ROLE, _msgSender()), "Elk: must have pauser role to pause");
        _pause();
    }

    /**
     * @dev Unpauses all token transfers.
     *
     * See {ERC20Pausable} and {Pausable-_unpause}.
     *
     * Requirements:
     *
     * - the caller must have the `PAUSER_ROLE`.
     */
    function unpause() public virtual {
        require(hasRole(PAUSER_ROLE, _msgSender()), "Elk: must have pauser role to unpause");
        _unpause();
    }

    function _beforeTokenTransfer(address from, address to, uint256 amount) internal virtual override(ERC20, ERC20Pausable, ERC20Snapshot) {
        ERC20Pausable._beforeTokenTransfer(from, to, amount);
        ERC20Snapshot._beforeTokenTransfer(from, to, amount);
    }

    function _mint(address account, uint256 amount) internal virtual override(ERC20Capped, ERC20) {
        ERC20Capped._mint(account, amount);
    }
}

Contract ABI

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Contract Creation Code

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